Journal of Analytic Theology <h1 class="entry-title" style="font-family: Roboto, sans-serif;">&nbsp;</h1> <p>The Journal of Analytic Theology is an open access, international journal that publishes articles, book reviews, and book symposia that explore theological and meta-theological topics in a manner that prizes terminological clarity and argumentative rigor. This includes historical studies that seek to elucidate conceptual challenges or explore strategies for addressing them.</p> en-US (Editors of the Journal of Analytic Theology) (Joshua Seachris) Mon, 21 Nov 2022 21:05:28 +0000 OJS 60 Introduction to Special Issue on Jewish Analytic Theology <p>It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue, devoted to the topic of worship in Jewish analytic theology.&nbsp; Many of the papers published here were presented at one of two summer workshops we ran as part of the John Templeton Foundation sponsored project, “Worship: A Jewish Philosophical Investigation”.&nbsp;</p> Samuel Lebens, Aaron Segal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Claim of Holiness <p>I argue that God’s holiness as conceived in Hebrew Scripture grounds human obligations to obey divine commands. To disobey the commands of a holy God would disrespect a basic good, which we have decisive reason to avoid doing. God’s holiness may be a somewhat obscure property––though I propose transcendence and perfect morality as necessary conditions––but His omniscience and perfect morality guarantee that He would not command human beings to do things that His holiness would not ground His authority to command. I conclude by replying to objections.</p> Cole S. Aronson Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 What is the Best Jewish Account of the Grounds of Worship of God? <p>This paper brings contemporary debate in analytic philosophy of religion regarding the notion of worship into conversation with Jewish sources and attempts to identify the most promising philosophical grounds for a Jewish account of the putative obligatoriness of worship. Some philosophers have recently debated the notion of worship, focusing in particular on the claim that human beings have an obligation to worship God and on whether and how such an obligation might be adequately grounded. I first canvass the major bases for worshipping God that have featured in this debate. I then turn to some relevant liturgical and philosophical sources of Jewish tradition, identifying grounds for the obligatoriness of (exclusively) worshipping God that have been advanced in those sources. I next consider which grounds of the putative obligatoriness of worship are the most promising for a Jewish account in terms of both philosophical cogency and rootedness in Jewish tradition. I argue that a version of a divine command grounding of prayer in a Soloveitchikian mode is both well-rooted in Judaism and also plausibly surmounts philosophical objections to divine command accounts. In the final section, I briefly raise the issue of whether the concept of worship is truly well-suited to a Jewish context, suggesting that the rich Hebrew notions of <em>avodah</em> and<em> tefillah</em> are perhaps more appropriate in articulating a fully adequate Jewish understanding of the pertinent issues. In particular, I argue that these notions fit well with the Soloveitchikian divine command grounding of the obligation to worship God.</p> Michael J. Harris Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 What’s So Bad about Worshipping Other Gods? <p>Many religious traditions teach that we should worship God, and philosophers have explored the requirement to worship God, and what might make God worthy of worship. These religious traditions also prohibit worshipping other gods. This essay explores, from a Jewish perspective, what it might mean to worship other gods, what the rationale behind the prohibition might be, and why the prohibition might be so grave.</p> Tyron Goldschmidt Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 For all the Blessings of this Life <p>I argue, first, against the idea that Christian thanksgiving is about counting one’s blessings, or finding something specific in every circumstance which is intended by God for one’s own good. For we cannot know how God specifically intended to benefit us in most circumstances, and such knowledge is required for blessings-counting; and the New Testament models a different kind of thanksgiving which makes more sense in light of Christian theology. I also argue against the conception of Christian gratitude as a positive (pleasant-feeling) emotion, given the fallen nature of the world; instead, it must be a mixed emotion, combining a pleasant-feeling anticipatory joy over God’s action of world-salvation with unpleasant feelings such as dissatisfaction, restlessness, or yearning.</p> Leigh Vicens Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Good Enough to be God <p>This paper develops a view of worship according to which worship is a certain sort of <em>life orientation</em>, and argues that according to the Bible, the worship of God normatively is <em>non-instrumental, comprehensive, unconditional orientation of one’s life toward God</em>. It then develops a biblical view about how this sort of worship of God is <em>possible</em>. Finally, it argues that it is <em>good</em> to worship God in this way only if God is an Anselmian being—<em>that than which nothing greater can be conceived</em>—and suggests that the God of the Bible, the Psalms in particular, is in fact an Anselmian being.</p> Thomas M. Ward Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Dilemma for De Dicto Halakhic Motivation: Why <i>Mitzvot</i> Don’t Require Intention <p>According to a prominent view in Jewish-Halakhic literature, “<em>mitzvot</em> (commandments) require intention.” That is, to fulfill one’s obligation in performing a commandment, one must intend to perform the act <em>because it’s a mitzvah</em>; one must take the fact that one’s act is a <em>mitzvah</em> as her reason for doing the action. I argue that thus understood, this Halakhic view faces a revised version of Thomas Hurka’s recent dilemma for structurally similar views in ethics: either it makes it a necessary condition for the act’s being a <em>mitzvah</em> that one has a false belief about the act’s Halakhic status, or it commits proponents of the “<em>mitzvot</em> require intention” view to a sort of rational failure in performing the <em>mitzvot</em>. The dilemma arises, however, only if we interpret this Halakhic view as requiring one to have a <em>belief</em> about her act’s Halakhic status in order for it to have this status. I suggest that the dilemma can be avoided by interpreting the intention requirement as requiring a <em>make-belief</em>, instead of a belief. Under this understanding, Halakha (or God) doesn’t care about <em>why </em>one performs an act of a <em>mitzvah</em>, but rather about <em>how </em>she does it; how she sees and experiences her action. This suggests another form of worship central to Judaism—worship via make-believing.</p> Itamar Weinshtock Saadon Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Worship, Apophaticism, and Non-Propositional Knowledge <p>This paper addresses the alleged tension between the kind of strong apophaticism endorsed by Maimonides and his view of worshiping God. After considering some extant resolutions to this problem, I offer a proposal that utilizes the role of silence and imitative activity in Maimonides. While this solution may not have been one that Maimonides would have offered, I argue that Maimonides had conceptual resources for offering a promising solution within his theological framework.</p> Eric Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Toward an African Theory of the Atonement <p>Contemporary philosophy of religion and analytic theology has recently experienced a revival regarding the nature of the Christian Atonement. The Kaleidoscope theory of the atonement says that the major theories such as Christus Victor, Satisfaction, Penal Substitution, and Moral Exemplar each capture an important aspect of the significance of the atonement. When taken together, they offer a fuller picture of the atonement than they do as individual theories. My goal is to add to the Kaleidoscope theory by drawing on insights from the African philosophical tradition. I argue that there are ideas to be found in the African communitarian ethic of ubuntu that can be mined to help deepen our understanding of the atonement. I thus seek to widen the kaleidoscope theory of the atonement to include important African perspectives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kirk Lougheed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Can Analytic Theology be Phenomenological? <p>The present essay is concerned with the question of whether analytic theology can be properly phenomenological. Both analytic theology and phenomenology are defined by reference to leading practitioners of both, and responses are given to objections to both approaches. The critique of analytic theology recently proposed by Martin Westerholm is considered, as well the objections to phenomenology brought forth by Tom Sparrow. The compatibility of analytic theology and phenomenology is argued on the basis of the definitions provided. Four brief arguments are given for establishing why an analytic theologian might consider adopting a phenomenological method. The essay concludes with a demonstration of a properly phenomenological analytic-theological treatment of the question of the relationship between Scripture and ecclesial tradition in dialog with the canonical <em>sola scriptura</em> of Kevin Vanhoozer and John Peckham.</p> Steven Nemes Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Closeness with God <p>Have you ever wondered what God’s inner emotional life might be like? Within Christian thought, there are conflicting answers to this question. The majority of Christian theologians throughout history have said that God cannot be moved by creatures to feel anything. God does not literally have empathy, mercy, or compassion. Instead, God only feels pure undisturbed happiness. This view is called divine impassibility. In the 20<sup>th</sup> Century, Christian theologians by and large came to reject this understanding of God in favour of divine passibility which affirms that God can be moved by creatures, and God can literally have empathy, mercy, and compassion. Yet the 21<sup>st</sup> Century has seen a renewed interest in this more historical understanding of God. How Christianity came to have two radically different portrayals of God is a puzzle, to be sure, but that is not one that I shall try to address here. Instead, my interest is in unpacking these two different conceptions of God, and briefly offering reasons for affirming divine passibility. The reasons that I discuss centre around a central theme within Christian thought—the goal of entering into a close, personal relationship with God. I start by defining some key terms, and then proceed to offer two arguments in favour of divine passibility. The first is the problem of knowing God well, and the second is based on the human desire for empathy.</p> Ryan Mullins Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Self-Defense for Theists <p><span>According to Theistic Defensive Incompatibilism, common theistic commitments limit the scope or explanation of permissible self-defense. In this essay, I offer six original arguments for Theistic Defensive Incompatibilism. The first four arguments concern <em>narrow proportionality</em>: the requirement that the defensive harm inflicted on unjust threateners not exceed the harm they threaten. Hellism, Annihilationism, and Danteanism each imply that narrow proportionality is rarely satisfied, whereas Universalism implies that killing never harms. The final two arguments concern <em>wide proportionality</em>, or the requirement that defensive harm not excessively harm non-liable third parties. Omnisubjectivity and Divine Love imply that wide proportionality is rarely satisfied.</span></p> Blake Hereth Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Descartes on Necessity and the Laws of Nature <p>This paper is on Descartes’ account of modality and, in particular, his account of the necessity of the laws of nature. He famously argues that the necessity of the “eternal truths” of logic and mathematics depends on God’s will. Here I suggest he has the same view about the necessity of the laws of nature. Further, I argue, this is a plausible theory of laws. For philosophers often talk about something being nomologically or physically necessary because of the laws of nature, but this necessity is thought to be metaphysically contingent. However, they struggle to explain how the laws could be genuinely necessary while being metaphysically contingent. The chief advantage of Descartes view, I argue, is that God’s will can plausibly explain both the necessity of the laws (because God made them necessary) and the contingency of the laws (because God could have done otherwise). So, Descartes’ theistic account of laws provides a plausible explanation, perhaps the best explanation, of the contingent-necessity of laws of nature. &nbsp;</p> Nathan Rockwood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The One vs. The Many <p class="Style1" style="text-align: left; text-indent: 0cm;" align="left"><span lang="EN-US">This paper looks at a recent exchange concerning the human nature of Christ and the Christological anthropology of Thomas F. Torrance. In this exchange, Oliver Crisp and Christopher Woznicki offer competing readings of Torrance’s Christological anthropology. Crisp argues for a concretist understanding of Christ’s human nature while Woznicki offers an abstractist metaphysic. This paper will look at this exchange in conversation with Torrance’s work and recent work in group ontology, offering a third way forward between the impasse of Crisp’s concretism and Woznicki’s abstractism which I call communal participation and argue is more in line with Torrance’s own understanding. </span></p> <p class="Style1" style="text-align: left; text-indent: 0cm;" align="left"><span lang="EN-US">Keywords: Christological anthropology; human nature; group ontology; participation; vicarious humanity; T. F. Torrance</span></p> D. T. Everhart Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Transubstantiation <p>This article aims to provide an intelligible explication of the doctrine of Transubstantiation. A model of this doctrine is formulated within the formal, neo-Aristotelian metaphysical and ontological framework of Jonathan Lowe, termed Serious Essentialism and the Four-Category Ontology. Formulating the doctrine of Transubstantiation within this metaphysical and ontological framework will enable it to be explicated in a clear and consistent manner, and the oft-raised intelligibility question against it can be answered.</p> Joshua Sijuwade Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Discovery of the Sixth Ecumenical Council’s Trinitarian Theology <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">For decades now some Christian theologians, and some philosophers of religion, have labored at distinguishing Social Trinitarianism and non-Social Trinitarianism. Many have revised their models of the Trinity in light of counter-arguments or counter-evidence. For Christian theologians, or philosophers of religion, what counts as a good counter-argument or counter-evidence may (but need not) depend on respected theological authorities. Recently, some focus has been paid to what is called Conciliar Trinitarianism, which is the name for whatever is endorsed by, or rejected by, the first seven ecumenical councils regarding the Trinity. For those who respect these ecumenical councils as authoritative (to some extent), it would be useful to get a clearer understanding of Conciliar Trinitarianism in order to assist in evaluating contemporary models of the Trinity. In what follows I argue that the Sixth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople III, in 680-681ce) made important contributions, and clarifications (for the contemporary reader), to Conciliar Trinitarianism. Surprisingly, there is no secondary literature regarding these contributions. So, the historical evidence given in this article is evidence that almost nobody has been aware of - apart from the editors of the critical edition of the Acts of Constantinople III. After having made the historical case, I discuss the implications of Constantinople III for (i) our understanding of the place of the Pseudo-Athanasian creed in Trinitarian speculation, (ii) standard narratives about the division between Greek and Latin Trinitarian theology, and (iii) contemporary models of the Trinity. </span></p> Scott M. Williams Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Interpreting Conciliar Christology <p>Given the interest in analytic theology circles about following “conciliar Christology,” this article describes three different patterns by which patristics scholars have interpreted the relations between the Ecumenical Councils in the past 150 years, patterns that I label as “pendulum swing,” “synthesis of emphases,” and “Cyrillian/traditional.” The article argues that whereas much analytic theology work on Christology belongs in the “synthesis of emphases” pattern, the ascendant paradigm in patristics scholarship is Cyrillian/traditional. It makes a case that the councils understood themselves as moving in a straight line of development from one to another and as proclaiming a broadly Cyrillian Christology, in which the person of the Incarnate Logos is the subject of all actions and experiences of the incarnate Christ. Given the significance of this issue for analytic theology discussions of Christ’s human freedom (is it the freedom of the human nature to act independently of the Logos, or the human freedom of the Logos to accomplish his earthly mission?), analytic theologians would do well to be aware of these currents in patristics scholarship on the Ecumenical Councils.</p> Donald Fairbairn Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Tue, 15 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 William Lane Craig. <i>In Quest of the Historical Adam: A Biblical and Scientific Exploration</i> Daniel Spencer Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 James M. Arcadi and James T. Turner, Jr., eds. <i>T&T Clark Handbook of Analytic Theology</i> Eric Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Hud Hudson. <i>Fallenness and Flourishing</i> James T. Turner Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Michelle Panchuk and Michael Rea, eds. <i>Voices from the Edge: Centering Marginalized Perspectives in Analytic Theology</i> Erin Kidd Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Jeffrey Koperski. <i>Divine Action, Determinism, and the Laws of Nature</i> Paul M. Gould Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Samuel Lebens. <i>The Principles of Judaism</i> David Shatz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Michael C. Rea. <i>Essays in Analytic Theology, Volumes 1 and 2</i> Robert MacSwain Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Thomas H. McCall. <i>Analytic Christology and the Theological Interpretation of the New Testament</i> Andrew Hollingsworth Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mark C. Murphy. <i>Divine Holiness and Divine Action</i> Ross Parker Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Joanna Leidenhag. <i>Minding Creation: Theological Panpsychism and the Doctrine of Creation</i> Benedikt Paul Göcke Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 William Wood. <i>Analytic Theology and the Academic Study of Religion</i> David Decosimo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Analytic Theology Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000